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Solution to Lesson 12. Microbiological Application Technology in Environmental Pollution Treatment – Student Topic 10


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Preamble

Mr. C’s house has a pig farm, every day this farm emits a large amount of waste, causing a stench to the people around. Please advise Mr. C on waste treatment measures to limit environmental pollution.

Detailed explanation:

Mr. C can use microorganisms to break down that waste and create organic fertilizer for crops.

Chapter 77 Chapter 1

Based on Figure 12.1, analyze the causes of soil pollution.

Detailed explanation:

There are four main causes of soil pollution:

Due to nature: soil is saline or alum.

Due to domestic waste: wastewater and domestic waste are not treated due to population growth.

Due to industrial activities: the increase in solid waste content exceeds the permissible limit for structural changes due to waste …

Due to agricultural activities: waste, pesticides or excessive fertilizers in the soil environment and not properly treated => change the properties of the soil.

Chapter 77 Chapter 2

What are the consequences of soil pollution on organisms and human life?

Detailed explanation:

Pollution of the soil environment leads to infected livestock and plants, reducing productivity => reducing economic efficiency, causing accumulation of toxins in food, directly affecting human health, etc.

Chapter 77 CH 3

Please state the general principles of the application of microbial technology in the treatment of soil environmental pollution.

Detailed explanation:

The general principle of microbial technology in soil pollution treatment is that microorganisms produce enzymes to degrade toxic substances or generate ions that increase/decrease soil pH.

Microorganisms help the soil to be loose, aerated, and increase fertility for better plant growth.

Chapter 77 VD 1

Please list the soil pollutants in your locality.

Detailed explanation:

Substances that pollute the soil environment:

– Domestic waste: plastic bags, single-use plastic, leftovers… are not treated.

– Domestic wastewater is discharged directly into the environment.

– Solid waste that is difficult to decompose such as glass, crockery, porcelain …

Chapter 77 VD 2

List some microbial products to treat soil pollution used in your locality.

Detailed explanation:

Some microbial products to treat soil pollution are:

  • AT products treat saline soils.
  • BIO – TT5 product to treat alum pollution.
  • Dissolved microbial fertilizers help reduce soil pH and excess fertilizer in the soil.

Chapter 78 Chapter 4

Let’s analyze the technology of applying microorganisms in wastewater treatment and water purification.

Detailed explanation:

Microbiological application technology in wastewater treatment and water purification:

– Mainly relies on saprophytic heterotrophic bacteria that decompose organic contaminants into inorganic substances.

– Two criteria: based on the presence of oxygen (aerobic or anaerobic treatment) and based on the growth process of microorganisms (suspension growth and attached growth).

Water is cleaned by removing harmful microorganisms, protozoa, algae … used in daily life.

Chapter 78 CH 5

Based on Figures 12.2 and 12.3, describe the principle of treating polluted water according to MBBR and AAO technology.

Detailed explanation:

MBBR technology artificially treats wastewater through materials as a substrate for microorganisms to adhere to for growth and development. The product from this process is a usable activated sludge.

AAO wastewater treatment technology: continuous biological treatment process, combining three microbial systems: anaerobic, aerobic and anoxic to treat wastewater.


CH p 79 VD

Describe the current situation of water sources in your locality. From there, some wastewater treatment technologies are proposed.

Detailed explanation:

The current situation of water sources in my locality: untreated wastewater causes the water in ponds and lakes to be cloudy, stinky…

Some wastewater treatment technologies: AAO technology, MBR technology (using biofilm filter tanks) …


Chapter 79 CH 6

What are the consequences if the oil spilled at sea is not treated?

Detailed explanation:

Untreated oil spills at sea will cause the following consequences:

Massive death of organisms → affected marine food chains and food webs.

Heavy metals such as sulfur settle and accumulate on the seabed, polluting and killing aquatic species such as corals…

Birds and marine mammals are severely affected: reduced metabolism and hypothermia …

CH p 79 VD

Let’s learn how to deal with pollution caused by oil spills in our country.

Detailed explanation:

Application of microbiological technology in oil spill treatment on the principle of oil decomposition of bacteria: Enretech-1 is used for emergency response to oil spills on land.

CH tr 80 CH 7

State the meaning of solid waste classification.

Detailed explanation:

The classification of solid waste is meaningful: it helps to apply the source of microorganisms to decompose each type of waste more appropriately, improve the efficiency of waste treatment, and the solid waste treatment process is more effective, etc.

Chapter 80 CH 8

How do you classify solid waste in your locality?

Detailed explanation:

In the locality, I used the method of classifying solid waste according to:

Recyclability (recyclable, non-recyclable solid waste).

Based on the degree of harm (general and hazardous waste)

Chapter 80 CH 9

Let’s summarize the steps of applying microorganisms in solid waste treatment.

Detailed explanation:

The general process of solid waste treatment by biological methods includes the following steps:

(1) Classification of organic waste:

Group organic waste into different groups: waste containing cellulose, starch, protein …

(2) Selection of methods and microorganisms for solid waste treatment.

Depending on the practical conditions to choose the appropriate organic waste treatment method, choose aerobic or anaerobic decomposition method).

(3) Conduct processing.

(4) Product collection.

Waste treatment helps to limit environmental pollution, while collecting useful products such as fertilizers and biogas.

Chapter 82 CH 10

Let’s analyze solid waste treatment technology models.

Detailed explanation:

There are two models of solid waste treatment technology: anaerobic and aerobic methods.

Anaerobic method:

  • It is a method of organic matter decomposition in the absence of oxygen.

  • Products: soluble substances, mixtures of gases CH4, CO2, NH3 … mostly CH4.

  • There are 3 groups of bacteria involved.

  • The process is supplemented with sludge and decomposed microorganisms, incubated in a pile under suitable environmental conditions.
  • Divided into 3 stages: substrate hydrolysis → organic acid formation → methane formation.

Aerobic method:

  • It is a method of decomposition of organic compounds in the presence of oxygen.

  • The end products are H2O, CO2 and microbial biomass.

  • There are 2 models: composting in a pile with agitation and composting in a heap without mixing and blowing.

  • The most important is an adequate supply of oxygen.

CH p 82 VD

Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic solid waste treatment methods.

Detailed explanation:

Chapter 83 Chapter 11

Analysis of biogas formation mechanism in biogas system.

Detailed explanation:

Mechanism of biogas formation in biogas system consists of 4 stages:

(1) Hydrolysis of organic matter:

(2) Acidification stage (fermentation stage):

Thanks to Acetogenic bacteria and phase 1 substances converted into lower molecular weight fatty acids + a little CO2, H2.

(3) Acetate stage:

Acetate bacteria break down organic acids to acetic acid, CO2 and H2.

(4) Formation of methane gas:

Formation of a mixture of biogas, mainly methane (NH4, N2, H2, H2S) by different bacteria.

CH p 83 VD

Describe the process of building and using biogas in your locality.

Detailed explanation:

The process of building biogas tunnel in my locality:

The process of using biogas tunnel:

– Initial feed material: fully loaded decomposes at once, ensuring airtightness. Clean water is fresh water.

– Put gas into use: after filling, close all gas valves to collect gas. Need to flush 2-3 times.

– Tunnel operation: daily replenishment of materials by washing and cleaning the barn. Monitor gas pressure to detect leaks through pipes.

Chapter 84 LT 1

Please suggest measures to apply microbial technology to treat soil, wastewater and solid waste in the local environment.

Detailed explanation:

Measures to apply microbiological technology:

  • Soil environment treatment: using BIO-TT5 product, using AT … to improve soil.

  • Wastewater treatment: using MBBR technology, using a biofilm filter tank (MBR).

  • Solid waste treatment: composting garbage into piles with mixing, using a biogas tunnel model.

Chapter 84 LT 2

What have you done to contribute to environmental protection at home, school and the surrounding community?

Detailed explanation:

I have done things like: classifying solid waste, littering at prescribed places, …

Chapter 85 BT 1

Analyze the role of microbial technology applications in environmental treatment in our country.

Detailed explanation:

The role of microbiological technology applications in the treatment of:

  • Pollution of the soil environment: helps the soil to be loose, aerated, increases fertility, helps plants grow better.
  • Water pollution: contaminated organic substances turn into inorganic substances such as CO2, H2O; solving oil spill incidents to help protect the marine environment…
  • Solid waste: decomposes difficult-to-decompose, toxic substances in the environment into inorganic, non-toxic, reusable products (methane gas, organic sludge, biogas).

Chapter 85 BT 2

List the microbial preparations in environmental treatment used in our country.

Detailed explanation:

Microbial preparations in environmental treatment: probiotics Jumbo A, BIOTECH-H01, BIO-TT5, THIO-CLEAR…

Chapter 85 BT 3

Collecting achievements in environmental treatment by microbial technology in our country.

Detailed explanation:

Using SagiBio preparations in environmental treatment:

Application of biogas tunneling to decompose organic waste into biogas for household use:

Chapter 85 BT 4

Based on Table 12.4, analyze the salinity situation in the Mekong Delta provinces. From there, please suggest solutions to treat saline soil with microbial technology.

Detailed explanation:

The situation of salinization in the provinces of the Mekong Delta is very serious, large rivers penetrate deep into the mainland and make the mainland in a series of riparian provinces severely saline, making it difficult for farming and cultivation. …

Solutions to treat salinity such as: using AT products to improve soil, AT to treat saltiness of fruit trees, etc.



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