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Solving Lesson 11. Microorganisms in Compound Decomposition – Student Topic 10

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Chapter 70 Opening

Environmental pollution is currently receiving great attention from the whole world. This is a dilemma and alarming globally. Environmental pollution is increasing day by day and shows no sign of stopping. Observe the surrounding living environment and tell us which place is more polluted between urban and rural areas?

Detailed explanation:

In my opinion, urban areas are more polluted.

Because urban areas have a higher population density than rural areas, along with domestic waste, wastewater, and industrial waste are not treated thoroughly, creating a lot of burden on the environment.

Chapter 71 Chapter 1

Presenting the scientific basis of the application of microorganisms in environmental protection.

Detailed explanation:

The scientific basis of the application of microorganisms in environmental protection is the growth and development of microorganisms. They absorb organic substances present in waste to produce simple products (inorganic substances).

Chapter 71 CHAPTER 2

Briefly describe the aerobic decomposition of microorganisms.

Solution method:

Detailed explanation:

Summary of the aerobic decomposition process of microorganisms is as follows:

This is the most commonly used process.

Microorganisms break down organic matter when oxygen is supplied with an aerator.

Aerobic digestion produces a large amount of energy: 1 part is used to create new microorganisms, 1 part is used for synthesis.

Inorganic products from oxidizing pollutants are: CO2, H2O, nitrate, sulfate, …

CH p 71 LT

State the application of aerobic decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms in nature.

Detailed explanation:


People use water pumps to create oxygen for fish ponds to provide an adequate source of oxygen for microorganisms living in the pond bottom to decompose food waste and waste products from the living process of fish.

Chapter 72 Chapter 3

Name some wastes that pollute the environment in big cities.

Detailed explanation:

Waste causes environmental pollution in big cities:

– Untreated domestic wastewater is discharged into ponds and lakes.

– Solid waste such as plastic, glass, porcelain, porcelain from daily life.

– Pesticides and fertilizers pollute the soil.

CO2 from burning straw causes air pollution.

Chapter 72 Chapter 4

Briefly describe the anaerobic digestion of microorganisms.

Detailed explanation:

Summary of the anaerobic digestion process of microorganisms:

It is the process of breaking down organic matter by microorganisms that do not require oxygen.

Consists of 4 steps: hydrolysis → fermentation or Acidogenesis → Acetogenesis → Methanogenesis.

The breakdown products are biogas mainly methane, carbon dioxide and some biosolids.

Methane gas is used as fuel.

CH tr 72 LT

State the application of anaerobic digestion of organic matter by microorganisms in nature.

Detailed explanation:

Application of anaerobic biological process in industrial wastewater treatment before being discharged into the environment through UASB tanks, anaerobic filtration, …

Chapter 75 BT 1

Improper or improper disposal of waste will cause serious environmental pollution. Explain why plants, organisms and people can be poisoned.

Detailed explanation:

Smog pollution increases the greenhouse effect, makes the Earth warm, melts ice and rises sea level, affecting human life, giving rise to respiratory cancer, skin cancer…

Water pollution can completely destroy the living organisms in it, causing a lack of fresh water for daily life…

Soil pollution narrows the living environment of plants and animals, reduces economic efficiency, infected food sources directly affect human health…

Chapter 75 BT 2

Anaerobic digestion produces methane, carbon dioxide and small amounts of biosolids. Anaerobic processes take place only under strict anaerobic conditions, so the reaction requires biosolids adapted to specific conditions. Why is the biomass growth in this digestion so much lower than in aerobic digestion?

Detailed explanation:

The growth of microbial biomass in anaerobic digestion is much lower than in aerobic digestion because: the difference in the energy source generated after the decomposition process.

Aerobic decomposition creates a large amount of energy to help microorganisms synthesize and grow faster => creating new microorganisms.

The anaerobic digestion process produces very little energy, so microorganisms need a longer time to grow and produce biomass.

Chapter 75 BT 3

What is the initiator of polysaccharide synthesis? Briefly describe the mechanism and explain its role.

Chapter 75 BT 4

How can microorganisms absorb substances with large molecular sizes such as proteins, starches, lipids, cellulose?

Detailed explanation:

For large molecules such as proteins, cellulose, starch, etc., microorganisms break them down by secreting the medium with some enzymes that break down these substances into smaller molecules, then absorb them. absorbed into the body and further broken down.

Chapter 75 BT 5

What are the common features of microbial degradation? Let’s give an illustrative example.

Detailed explanation:

The general characteristics of the biodegradation process are:

It is an extremely effective and low-cost biological treatment method to treat environmental pollution.

The source of raw materials is the organic matter in the waste.

The product is an inorganic substance that is not harmful to the environment.

The decomposition process creates useful intermediate products in life (biogas, methane, sludge…).


Treating straw and rice straw into organic fertilizer applies the anaerobic decomposition of cellulose by microorganisms.

Chapter 75 BT 6

Aerobic digestion consists of three stages:

Aerobic microorganisms grow and reproduce vigorously to decompose organic matter through oxidation. After decomposition, the treated waste will turn into sludge and settle to the bottom. This mud has a high nutritional content, so it is often used as a fertilizer for plants. Please use the information above and the knowledge in the article to prove that aerobic digestion is more effective than anaerobic digestion.

Detailed explanation:

Aerobic digestion is more efficient than anaerobic digestion because:

Generating large amounts of energy contributes to faster synthesis and growth of microbial biomass.

The intermediate products from aerobic decomposition have many benefits to humans: biogas from composting, organic sludge…

Easier to do: just provide enough oxygen for the microorganism.

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