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Which of the following statements is true or false regarding in vitro plant tissue culture? Explain.
Cell and tissue culture methods are based on cytology of mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization.
The process of this method: plant cells are cultured to form callus -> differentiate into different tissues -> regenerate mature plants.
Callus is a group of differentiated cells with strong growth potential.
Tissue culture method was used to generate the source of combinatorial variation.
The important meaning of this method is that it is possible to rapidly multiply rare plant varieties, creating genetically identical plants.
(1) Wrong. In vitro plant cell and tissue culture methods are based on the cytology of mitosis.
(2) Right. People can culture many types of plant cells (buds, leaves, stems, roots, flowers …) to form callus, then use growth hormones to stimulate cell differentiation into tissues. differentiate and eventually regenerate into mature plants.
(3) Wrong. Callus is a group of cells from single cells that divide into, yet differentiate.
(4) Wrong. Tissue culture method to produce a type of seedlings that are genetically identical to the mother plant so that no combinatorial variation occurs.
If there is a dog of a rare breed, what method can be used to create dogs with the same genotype as it? State the scientific basis of that method.
Animal cloning methods can be used.
Scientific basis of this method is mitosis of the original group of cells.
Comparison of the differentiation potential of embryonic and adult stem cells.
Embryonic stem cells (ES) have the ability to proliferate indefinitely in vitro and have the ability to differentiate into many cell types.
Adult stem cells are grown to increase the number and then put into the patient’s body. That is, adult stem cells have undergone differentiation and do not have much potential to generate many types of cells.
In the tissue culture stage, can we apply the same culture technique to different cultures? Explain.
No, because different cultures can be from different species, the characteristics, requirements for nutrients and physical conditions such as light, CO2 concentration, temperature, etc. are different. In addition, the content of growth hormones to differentiate callus cells into different tissues is also different, so the same culture technique cannot be applied with different culture samples.
One of the applications of animal cell technology is the production of cell lines for the purposes of cell biology research. Some cell lines are used such as: genetically modified cells, cancer cells, pluripotent stem cells. Can you tell me which of the following cell lines are used to study?
Cell cycle studies.
Study of cytotoxicity.
Studying the differentiation potential of cells.
Cell cycle studies: cancer cells.
– Study of cytotoxicity: genetically modified cells.
– Researching the differentiation potential of cells: pluripotent stem cells.
Why is it possible to propagate crops by means of tissue culture with many economic benefits, but also with very high potential risks?
The risk of plant tissue culture is that the seedlings are genetically identical (without diversity), so when encountering an adverse condition such as viral disease, insect … all the seedlings may succumb and die.
Regenerative medicine is a branch of medicine with the aim of repairing tissues and organs damaged by disease, injury or old age; thanks to which the function of these tissues and organs is improved or completely restored. Explain the importance of stem cell application in regenerative medicine.
Stem cells play an extremely important role in creating healthy cells, the basis of stem cell transplantation, overcoming the difficulty of finding a transplant organ.
It is a new treatment for diseases that have not been effective before such as Parkinson’s disease, autoimmune diseases, etc.
Open up many new research directions in the future, becoming a “multipurpose” material for many different purposes.
What are the benefits and harms of cloning mammals? From there, tell me your views on animal cloning.
Helps to quickly breed rare livestock or increase productivity in livestock. This technique also allows the creation of livestock breeds carrying human genes, in order to provide replacement organs and organ transplants for patients without being eliminated by the human immune system.
Successful cloning of mammals also has many problems with gene expression, affecting the development of the created animal.
In addition, the created animals are also used for drug testing, if not subject to ethical issues.
According to him, the cloning of mammals should be strictly controlled to avoid unfortunate risks.
Today, to propagate plants quickly, scientists often use the two methods described in Figure 1.
a) Describe the procedure of the two methods above.
b) What are the similarities and differences between these two methods?\
c) Based on the above two methods, some scientists have created 4 carrot plants (B, C, D, E) from the mother plant (plant A). Knowing that, there is no mutation. In your opinion, are the following statements true or false?
Plants B and C have the same genotype.
– Plants B and C are homozygous for all gene pairs.
Plants A, D, and E all have the same genotype.
– Plants A, B, C, D, E all react the same when environmental conditions change.
The method of creating B and C plants is a pollen culture method, consisting of 3 stages: pollen production and haploid tissue culture -> supplementing growth hormone so that tissues develop into haploid seedlings -> diploid seedlings with Colchicine to produce diploid plants.
The method of creating D and E plants is a method of tissue culture, consisting of 3 stages: separating tissue samples from organs of the body -> culturing tissue samples to form scar tissue -> adding stimulating hormones grow to develop into a seedling.
– Conclusion 1 is wrong. Since plants B and C plants are formed from different pollen grains, the genotypes of the two plants can be different.
Conclusion 2 is correct. Because of the diploidization of haploid seedlings with Colchicine in pollen culture, a series of hermaphrodites are all purebred.
– Conclusion 3 is correct. Since Plants D and E are cultured from the root tissue of tree A, plants D and E have the same genetic characteristics as the parent plant (plant A).
– Conclusion 4 is wrong. Plants A, D, and E will react in the same way when environmental conditions change. Trees B and C will react in different ways.
Isolated an embryonic stem cell from a mouse A embryo and cultured it in vitro in a suitable nutrient medium to increase the number of cells. Then, these cells were transplanted into mouse B. Monitoring the differentiation process of these embryonic stem cells found that they did not enter any differentiation pathways. Predict the possible causes of mouse A’s embryonic stem cells failing to differentiate.
Possible causes of mouse A embryonic stem cells failure to differentiate are:
– Immune rejection reaction: the body of rat B recognizes foreign tissue (not belonging to that body) and rejects it.
– The embryonic cells of mouse A have not been differentiated into cells with specific functions before being introduced into the body of mouse B.
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