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Lesson 23. Review Chapter 7 Pages 71, 72, 73 SBT Chemistry 10 Connecting Knowledge to Life>


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Recognizing 23.1

Which of the following halogen atoms exhibits only -1 oxidation number in compounds?

A. Fluorine.

B. Chlorine.

C. Bromine.

D. Iodine.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: A

Recognizing 23.2

In medicine, which of the following halogens is dissolved in alcohol to be used as a topical antiseptic?

A. Fluorine.

B. Chlorine.

C. Iodine.

D. Bromine.

Solution method:

– Answer:

Recognizing 23.3

Which of the following compounds is most commonly found in nature?

A. MgCl2.

B. NaCl.

C. KCl.

D. HCl.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: GET

Recognizing 23.4

The electron configuration of the outermost shell of a halogen atom has the general form .

A. ns2np5.

B. ns2.

C. ns2np6.

D. ns2np4.

Solution method:

Based on group VIIA elements, there will be 7 electrons in the outermost shell

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: A

Recognizing 23.5

Under normal conditions, which of the following halogens exists in liquid form, has a reddish brown color, causing deep burns if dropped on the skin?

A. F2.

B. Cl2.

C. I2.

D. Br2.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: EASY

Recognizing 23.6

In the hydrogen halide series, from HF to HI, how does the bond length change?

A. No change.

B. Descending.

C. Ascending.

D. Circulatory.

Solution method:

Based on the atomic radius of the halogen group increasing from fluorine to iodine → the distance between the H atom and the halogen atom increases

Detailed explanation:

– Answer:

Recognizing 23.7

A solution of hydrohalic acid that is corrosive to glass is

A. HCl.

B. HI.

C. HF.

D. HBr.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer:

– Specifically: SiO2 + 4HF → SiF4 + 2 HOUSES2O

Recognizing 23.8

In the laboratory, it is possible to prepare Cl . gas2 Which of the following solids is reacted with hot, concentrated HCl solution?

A. CaCO3.

B. NaHCO3.

C. FeO.

D. MnO2.

Solution method:

In the laboratory, strong oxidizing agents (MnO .) are used2KMnO4,…) react with HCl to prepare Cl . gas2

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: EASY

– Specifically: MnO2 + 4HCl → MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2 HOUSES2O

Recognizing 23.9

For Cl . gas2 react with KOH solution, heat, obtain a solution containing KCl salt and which of the following salts?

A. KClO.

B. KClO3.

C. KClO4.

D. KClO2.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: GET

– Specifically: 3Cl2 + 6KOH -> 5KCl + KClO3 + 3 HOURS2O

Understanding 23.10

Which of the following hydrohalic acids is the strongest acid?

A. HI.

B. HF.

C. HCl.

D. HBr.

Solution method:

Based on the atomic radius of the halogen group increases from fluorine to iodine → the distance between the H atom and the halogen atom increases → the H atom has increasing mobility → the stronger the acidity

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: A

Understanding 23.11

Apatite ore, a common ore in nature containing the element fluorine, has the main chemical composition of

A. CF3Cl.

B. NaF.

C. Na3AlF6.

D. Caten(PO .)4)6F2.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: EASY

Understanding 23.12

At high temperature and catalysis, which of the following reactions between hydrogen and halogens is reversible?

A. F2.

B. I2.

C. Br2.

D. Cl2.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: GET

– Specifically:

Understanding 23.13

In halogens, the word F2 to I2how does the boiling point change?

A. Descending.

B. Cyclic.

C. No change.

D. Ascending.

Solution method:

Based on

Features of van der Waals interactions:

The van der Waals interaction increases the melting and boiling points of substances

+ As the molecular weight increases, the molecular size increases, the van der Waals interactions increase

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: EASY

Understanding 23.14

Under the same conditions, which of the following halogen molecules has the strongest van der Waals interactions?

A. I2.

B. Br2.

C. Cl2.

DF2.

Solution method:

Based on

Features of van der Waals interactions:

The van der Waals interaction increases the melting and boiling points of substances

+ As the molecular weight increases, the molecular size increases, the van der Waals interactions increase

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: A

Understanding 23.15

When reacting with nonmetals, which of the following trends does the halogen atoms exhibit?

A. Give up 1 electron.

B. Get 1 electron

C. Get 2 electrons.

D. Shared electrons.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: EASY

– Explanation: This is a bond between atoms of the same chemical nature ” Create covalent bonds → Electron-shared elements

Understanding 23.16

Which of the following substances has the lowest boiling point under normal pressure?

AHF.

B. HBr.

C. HCl.

D. HI.

Solution method:

Based on:

– Which atom has a hydrogen bond → high boiling point?

– Which atom has more molecular mass → van der Waals interactions increase → boiling point increases

Detailed explanation:

– HF is the only molecule with hydrogen bonds in the above answers -> highest boiling point

– Other molecules have increasing molecular mass -> increasing van der Waals interactions -> increasing boiling point in the order: HCl < HBr < HI

-> HCl has the lowest boiling point

-> Answer: YES

Understanding 23.17

Which of the following solutions can distinguish between HCl and NaCl solutions?

A. HCl. B. Br2. C. AgNO3. D. NaHCO3.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: EASY

– Explain:

+ NaHCO3 does not react with NaCl

+ NaHCO3 The reaction with HCl has the phenomenon of gas bubbles:

NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + CO2 + FRIENDS2O

Understanding 23.18

Which of the following two substances are added to table salt to add elemental iodine?

A. I2HI.

B. HI, HIO3.

C. KI, KIO3.

D. I2Ali3.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer:

Understanding 23.19

Do not use glass bottles but often use plastic bottles to store, store and preserve which of the following hydrohalic acid?

AHF.

B. HCl.

C. HBr.

D. HI.

Detailed explanation:

– Answer: A

– Explanation: Because HF has the ability to corrode glass

SiO2 + 4HF → SiF4 + 2 HOUSES2O

Use 23.20

Give the following statements:

(a) Iodized salt is used to prevent goiter caused by iodine deficiency.

(b) Chloramine-B is used as a disinfectant spray to prevent the Covid-19 epidemic

(c) Javel water is used for bleaching and disinfecting.

(d) Table salt is a raw material for the production of caustic soda, chlorine, and Javel water.

The correct statement is

A. 1.

B. 2.

C. 3.

D. 4

Solution method:

– Answer: EASY

– Explanation: Chloramine-B (C6H6O2SNCl) is an organic compound containing chlorine atoms, which easily reacts with water to form hypochlorite with strong bactericidal effect:

OLD6H6O2SNCl + HOW2O → C6H6O2SNH + HClO

Application 23.21

Hydrochloric acid is used to remove blue copper rust consisting of hydroxide and carbonate salts of a copper plate prior to painting. Write chemical equations for the reactions taking place.

Solution method:

The following reactions take place:

Cu(OH)2 + 2HCl → CuCl2 + FRIENDS2O

CuCO3 + 2HCl → CuCl2 + CO2 + FRIENDS2O

Application 23.22

Give solutions of hydrofluoric acid, potassium iodide, sodium chloride, with random symbols X, Y, Z. When using silicon dioxide and silver nitrate reagents to identify Y, Z, the results are obtained in the following table:

Reagent

Reagents

Phenomena

Y

silicon dioxide

silicon dioxide is dissolved

Z

silver nitrate

yellow precipitate

The initial solutions are denoted by , respectively

A.Z, Y, X.

B.Y, X, Z.

C. Y, Z, X.

D. X, Z, Y.

Detailed explanation:

– Y dissolves silicon dioxide → Y is hydrofluoric acid

SiO2 + 4HF → SiF4 + 2 HOUSES2O

– Z reacts with silver nitrate → gold precipitate → Z is potassium iodine

– So the remaining X is sodium chloride

→ Answer:

Application 22.23

Slowly add 10 g of solution X, consisting of 0.84% ​​NaF and 1.17% NaCl, to AgNO . solution3 excess, mg of precipitate was obtained. Calculate the value of m.

Detailed explanation:

– Yes \({n_{NaCl}} = \frac{{10.1,17}}{{100.58.5}} = 0.002\)mol

– Consider the reaction: NaCl + AgNO3 → AgCl$ + NaNO3

0.002 → 0.002 (mol)

→ \({m_{ket\,tassel}} = 0.002.143.5 = 0.287\)gram (AgF is the soluble salt)

Application 22.24

In industry, Javel water is produced by electrolysis of NaCl solutions without the use of an electrode diaphragm. Then, Cl2 and the formed NaOH will continue to react with each other.

Write chemical equations for the reactions that take place in the production of Javel water. Determine the role of NaCl and Cl2 in each reaction.

Detailed explanation:

In industry, the electrolysis of NaCl solution takes place as follows:

+ Assuming the electrolysis process has a diaphragm:

+ When electrolysis does not have a diaphragm, NaOH will continue to react with Cl2:

2NaOH + Cl2 → NaCl + NaClO + H2O

→ Diaphragmless NaCl electrolysis:



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