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Topic Review Prize 3 – Student Study Topic 10


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Describe the role of microorganisms in the treatment of soil, water and solid waste environmental pollution.

Detailed explanation:

The role of microbiological technology applications in the treatment of:

  • Pollution of the soil environment: helps the soil to be loose, aerated, increases fertility, helps plants grow better.

  • Water pollution: contaminated organic substances turn into inorganic substances such as CO2, H2O; solving oil spill incidents to help protect the marine environment…

  • Solid waste: decomposes difficult-to-decompose, toxic substances in the environment into inorganic, non-toxic, reusable products (methane gas, organic sludge, biogas).


Survey the current state of soil and water environment in the locality. From there, put forward more effective measures to treat environmental pollution.


– Observe, take pictures and record all kinds of organic, inorganic waste, wastewater in the locality.

– Write a report on the status of environmental pollution in the locality:

  • Pollution of soil and water environment.

  • Causes of soil and water pollution.

  • Proposing measures to deal with soil and water pollution in the locality.


State the advantages of microbiological treatment of environmental pollution.

Detailed explanation:

Advantages of environmental treatment with microorganisms:

  • Simple, easy to do.

  • Protect the environment in a sustainable way that doesn’t harm other living things.

  • Helps balance the polluted environment, helping the living system in that environment to be more stable.

  • Creating intermediate products that are beneficial to humans such as organic fertilizers, biogas, organic sludge, etc.


Name the achievements of microbial technology in the treatment of environmental pollution.

Detailed explanation:

Achievements of microbial technology in environmental pollution treatment:

  • The biogas digester processes organic waste into organic sludge, fertilizer, and biogas for household use.

  • Treatment of crop waste (straw, corn stalks …) by microorganisms minimizes air pollution when burned in the traditional way, creating organic sludge.

  • Using biological products such as AT-TT5, BIOTECH to treat saline soil, alum …


Compare aerobic and anaerobic digestion.

Detailed explanation:


  • Two methods are applied in parallel in waste treatment.

  • The resulting product is a gas mixture.

  • Help protect the environment sustainably.



Plan to collect (used) batteries and pesticide bottles locally.


Name some bacteria that decompose organic matter in the environment.

Detailed explanation:

Some bacteria that break down organic matter in the environment are:

  • Anaerobic bacteria: Closdium, Bipiclobacterium, Bacillus gram negative …

  • Aerobic bacteria: Azobacter, Vibrio, Cellulomonas, Cellvibrio …


Uncle Hung went to the market to see people throwing away a lot of green vegetables (water spinach, cabbage …). I think I can pick it up and bring it home to incubate to create biogas to use for cooking in the family. Do you think Mr. Hung’s thinking is correct? If yes, please describe how to make biogas from green vegetables.


Please state the benefits of using biogas technology in livestock and farming.

Detailed explanation:

Advantages of biogas generation technology by microorganisms:

  • The product created after the treatment process is used as crop fertilizer.

  • The gas produced is used for many different purposes: direct heating, compression, liquefaction or conversion into electricity.

  • Help people solve the problem of pollution caused by solid waste, treat water pollution, and at the same time increase the value of agricultural production.


Company X is in the business of manufacturing canned goods. The annual record shows that the company has a large amount of solid waste, especially organic waste (fruit peels, fish bones, …) and needs to spend a lot of money to deal with this waste, causing impacts. to the company’s revenue. If as a waste treatment specialist, what waste treatment measures would you advise for company X to both reduce costs and ensure safety for the environment?

Detailed explanation:

I will advise on aerobic waste treatment methods:

You can choose one of two solid waste treatment technology models such as:

Compost garbage into piles with mixing.

  • Suitable for waste of animal origin, grease.

  • Minus points: difficult to control odor and leachate causing groundwater pollution in the treatment area.

  • Garbage is piled up from 1.5 to 2.5m; 4-5m wide, mix manually or by machine about 2 times/week.

Compost the waste in an undisturbed pile and blow air.

  • Suitable for homogenous, bulk mixtures, not suitable for animal source waste and grease.

  • Garbage composted in piles of 2 – 2.5m; adding more breathable materials such as wood chips, old newspapers … below install a system of air pipes to supply oxygen.

  • Advantages: control odors due to the decomposition of garbage, faster.


Make a plan to build a biogas digester for local livestock households.


– Objective (build a biogas cellar to collect biogas for cooking, lighting, reducing environmental pollution…).

– Location (pay attention to convenience for construction, ensure safety, environmental sanitation …).

– Size of biogas cellar (including input cellar, biogas cellar, outlet tank, …).

– Materials (brick, cement, iron, steel, PVC pipes, …).

– Cost of materials, labor…

– Execution time.

– …


Design an organic waste treatment pond for rural households.


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